UN had its origin in August, 1944 at Dumbarton Oaks Conference where the representatives of USA, UK, USSR and China met to form an association for the maintenance of international peace and security. Finally, on June 26, 1945, the charter of the United Nations was signed in a conference called at “San Fransisco”, which included the representatives of 51 states. The charter then came into force on 24 Octobar, 1945; thus 24 October has been celebrated as the UN day.
Headquarters, Flag, Languages: United Nation’s Headquarter is situated in Manhattan Island of New York and the European office at Geneva.
The Flag of the UNO was adopted in Octobar 1947. The flag includes white UN emblem (two bent olive branches, open at the top and between them is the world map) on a light blue background. the flag was adopted by the UNO in Octobar, 1947. Official Language of UNO are French, Chinese, English, Russian, Arabic and Spanish. While the working languages are only French and English.
Aims and Objectives of UNO: The main objectives of UNO are:
• To maintain international peace and security.
• To develop spirit of co-operation and friendly relations among the nations.
• To promote respect for human rights, dignity and freedom.
• To solve international problems of social, economic, agricultural and humanitarian character.
• To employ international machinery for the promotion of economic and social advancement of all people.
Organs of the UN
There are six main organs of UN:
- General Assembly: It is the main body of UN and consists of the representatives of all the states. Each state may send 5 representatives in the general assembly but has only 1 vote. It meets regularly once a year, special and emergency sessions can also be sumoned at the request of Security Council. Decision of an important matter is taken by the 2/ 3rd majority, while in simple matters, only simple majority is enough. The assembly may discuss any matter within the scope of charter except those already referred to the Security Council. The assembly generally discusses ways of preserving peace, economic development and social progress, well being of people, peaceful use of atomic energy, human right etc. It elects its own President & Vice-President every year.
Functional of General Assembly
(i) The membership of new states is done by the general assembly on the recommendation of Security Council
(ii) The Judges of the International Court of Justice are elected by general assembly.
(iii) It elects the non-permanent members of Security Council, members of Economic and Social Council, and certain members of Trusteeship Council.
(iv) It passes entire budget of UNO.
- Security Council: It is the executive body of UN which is responsible for maintaining international peace in the world. Its session can be summoned at 24 hour notice and if functions almost continuously. The council consists of 15 members–5 permanent (USA, UK; Russia, France and China) and 10 non-permanent members which are elected for a term of 2 years by the General Assembly. the distribution of the numbers of non-permanent members are (1) Five members from Asian and African countries (2) two from latin American countries
(3) two from western Europes and other (which implies commonwealth countries) (4) and one from east European countries.
Each member of the Security Council has one vote. The approval of all permanent members is necessary. If any permanent member casts a “Veto” to show its disagreement, then no decision can be taken. The numbers of affirmative votes needed for a decision are atleast nine which includes the vote of 5 permanent members. In the event of a threat to peace or occurence of war between two or more countries, the Security Council has the power to take appropriate measures to restore peace and security.
- Economic and Social Council: The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) is the welfare council which coordiantes the economic and social activities of the United Nations and its specialised agencies and other organisations. This council meets at least thrice a year. It is composed of 54 members. General Assembly elects one-third members of ECOSOC every year for a period of 3 years. ECOSOC takes decision by a majority of those members present and voting. ECOSOC seeks to build a world of greater prosperity, stability and justice.
- The Trusteeship Council: The Prime responsibility of this council is to supervise the administration of those territories which were placed under the International Trusteeship System. This council of UNO is also known as ‘Protector of Dependent People’ who are not yet able to Govern themselves. It consists of member of states administering trust territories and permanent members of the security council nto administering territories. Under the charter, the member states have to accept certain obligations to promote their development and to protect their interest and security so long as the trustee territories are not able to govern themselves.
At present, USA is the only administering trust territory. So, the Trusteeship Council consists of only permanent members. This council meets at least once in a year.
- International Court of Justice (ICJ): HQ-The Hague, The Netherlands
The International Court of Justice (known colloquially as the World Court or ICJ) is the primary judicial organ of the United Nations. Established in 1945 by the Charter of the United Nations, the Court began work in 1946 as the successor to the Permanent Court of International Justice. The ICJ is composed of 15 judges elected to nine year terms by the UN General Assembly and the UN Security Council from a list of persons, nominated by the national groups in the Permanent Court of Arbitration. All 192 UN members are automatically parties to the Court’s statute. Article 94 establishes the duty of all UN members to comply with decisions of the Court involving them. If parties do not comply, the issue may be taken before the Security Council for enforcement action. It conducts its business in English and French.
- Secretariat: All day today functions of the UN are performed by the Secretariat. the Secretariat is headed by the Secretary-General who is the chief Administrative Officer, and he is appointed by the General Assembly upon the recommendation of Security Council for a five- year term, which is renewable. It is his duty to implement all resolutions passed by the Security Council or the General Assembly. He makes the annual report of General Assembly and also bring to the notice of security council about any matter threatening the maintenance of international peace and Security.