• Properties of matters: A matter can neither be created nor it can be destroyed but it can be transformed from one state to another. Matter is made of basic building blocks commonly called elements which are 112 in number. The matter is made of only one kind of element then the smallest unit of that element is called an atom. If the matter is made of two or more different elements then the smallest unit of matter is called a molecule.
• Molecule is defined as the smallest unit of matter which has independent existence and can retain complete physical and chemical properties of matters.
• According to kinetic theory of matter:
i. molecules are in the state of continuous motion in all possible directions and hence they posses kinetic energy which increases with the gain of heat energy or rise in temperature,
ii. the molecules always attract each other,
iii. the force of attraction between the molecules decreases with the increase in intermolecular spaces
• The molecules always attract each other. The force of attraction between the similar kind of molecules is called force of cohesion whereas the force of attraction between different kinds of molecules is called force of adhesion.
• In case of solids, the intermolecular space being very small, so intermolecular forces are very large and hence solids have definite size and shape.
• In case of liquids, the intermolecular space being large, so intermolecular forces are small and hence liquids have definite volume but no definite shape.
• In case of gases, the intermolecular space being very large, so intermolecular forces are extremely small and hence gases have neither a definite volume and nor definite shape.
• A solid has definite shape and size. In order to change (or deform) the shape or size of a body, a force is required.If you stretch a helical spring by gently pulling its ends, the length of the spring increases slightly. When you leave the ends of the spring, it regains its original size and shape. The property of a body, by virtue of which it tends to regain its original size and shape when the applied force is removed, is known as elasticity and the deformation caused is known as elastic deformation.
• However, if you apply force to a lump of putty or mud, they have no gross tendency to regain their previous shape, and they get permanently deformed. Such substances are called plastic and this property is called plasticity. Putty and mud are close to ideal plastics.
• When a force is applied on body, it is deformed to a small or large extent depending upon the nature of the material of the body and the magnitude of the deforming force. The deformation may not be noticeable visually in many materials but it is there. When a body is subjected to a deforming force, a restoring force is developed in the body. This restoring force is equal in magnitude but opposite in direction to the applied force. The restoring force per unit area is known as stress. If F is the force applied and A is the area of cross section of the body, Magnitude of the stress = F/A. The SI unit of stress is N m–2 or pascal (Pa). Stress is the restoring force per unit area and strain is the fractional change in dimension.
• HOOKE’S LAW: Robert Hooke, an English physicist (1635 – 1703 A.D) performed experiments on springs and found that the elongation (change in the length) produced in a body is proportional to the applied force or load. In 1676, he presented his law of elasticity, now called Hooke’s law. For small deformations the stress and strain are proportional to each other. This is known as Hooke’s law. Thus, stress ”” strain or stress = k X strain , where k is the proportionality constant and is known as modulus of elasticity.
• The basic property of a fluid is that it can flow. The fluid does not have any resistance to change of its shape. Thus, the shape of a fluid is governed by the shape of its container. A liquid is incompressible and has a free surface of its own. A gas is compressible and it expands to occupy all the space available to it.
• Pascal’s Law: The French scientist Blaise Pascal observed that the pressure in a fluid at rest is the same at all points if they are at the same height.distributed uniformly throughout. We can say whenever external pressure is applied on any part of a fluid contained in a vessel, it is transmitted undiminished and equally in all directions. This is the Pascal’s law for transmission of fluid pressure and has many applications in daily life. A number of devices such as hydraulic lift and hydraulic brakes are based on the Pascal’s law.
• The flow of the fluid is said to be steady if at any given point, the velocity of each passing fluid particle remains constant in time.The path taken by a fluid particle under a steady flow is a streamline.
• Bernoulli’s principle states when a fluid flows from one place to another without friction, its total energy ( kinetic + potential + pressure) remains constant.
• You must have noticed that, oil and water do not mix; water wets you and me but not ducks; mercury does not wet glass but water sticks to it, oil rises up a cotton wick, inspite of gravity, Sap and water rise up to the top of the leaves of the tree, hairs of a paint brush do not cling together when dry and even when dipped in water but form a fine tip when taken out of it. All these and many more such experiences are related with the free surfaces of liquids. As liquids have no definite shape but have a definite volume, they acquire a free surface when poured in a container. These surfaces possess some additional energy. This phenomenon is known as surface tension and it is concerned with only liquid as gases do not have free surfaces. Mathematically, surface tension is defined as the force acting per unit length of an imaginary line drawn on the free surface of the liquid. The surface tension is expressed in newton/meter.
• Most of the fluids are not ideal ones and offer some resistance to motion. This resistance to fluid motion is like an internal friction analogous to friction when a solid moves on a surface. It is called viscosity.