Category: Civil Engineering


The methods of field identification of soils can conveniently be discussed under the headings of coarse-grained and fine-grained soil materials. Coarse-Grained Soil Materials The coarse-grained soil materials are mineral fragments that may be identified primarily on the basis of grain size. The different constituents of coarse-grained materials are sand and gravel. As described in the […]


Clay minerals are essentially crystalline in nature though some clay minerals do contain material which is non-crystalline (for example allophane). Two fundamental building blocks are involved in the formation of clay mineral structures. They are: Tetrahedral unit. Octahedral unit. The tetrahedral unit consists of four oxygen atoms (or hydroxyls, if needed to balance the structure) […]

TIMBER as Building Material

Timber denotes wood, which is suitable for building or carpentry or various other engineering purposes like for construction of doors, windows, roofs, partitions, beams, posts, cupboards, shelves etc Uses of timber: (i) Used in the form of piles, posts, beams, lintels, door/window frames and leaves, roof members etc (ii) Used for flooring, ceiling, paneling and […]