FIELD IDENTIFICATION OF SOILS

The methods of field identification of soils can conveniently be discussed under the headings of coarse-grained and fine-grained soil materials. Coarse-Grained Soil Materials The coarse-grained soil materials are mineral fragments that may be identified primarily on the basis of grain size. The different constituents of coarse-grained materials are sand and gravel. As described in the […]

STRUCTURE OF CLAY MINERALS

Clay minerals are essentially crystalline in nature though some clay minerals do contain material which is non-crystalline (for example allophane). Two fundamental building blocks are involved in the formation of clay mineral structures. They are: Tetrahedral unit. Octahedral unit. The tetrahedral unit consists of four oxygen atoms (or hydroxyls, if needed to balance the structure) […]